Theory of Everything | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

The Quantum Fundamental Unit and Marginal Analysis | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

by | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Dr. Scott Gonzales, M.D. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

This is the Quantum Fundamental Unit (QFU). It is a particle and electromagnetic wave at the same time. The QFU is quantized with respect to length, time, mass, and energy and it is the basic building block for all possible universes. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Introduction | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

In phase 1 of this paper, I create the QFU from absolutely nothing. In phase 2, I repeat the QFU over and over to provide all possible universes, including our universe. This theory is a Higgsless model showing spontaneous symmetry breaking and compliance with the unitarity principle. At times, I will use terms, like these, that mostly physicists will understand. Yet, the reader does not need to know these terms or difficult mathematics to understand the theory. I use geometry to articulate the model, which in effect is a picture book easily understood by a middle school student. I integrate quantum mechanics and relativity into a single model using a technique borrowed from economics known as marginal analysis. This is where the collapse of the wavefunction occurs. Marginal analysis gives visual meaning to mathematics in physics. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Phase 1: Creation of the Quantum Fundamental Unit from nothing | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

I ask the reader to consider the possibility of having absolutely nothing. It is rather hard to do. The smallest ripple in space or time eliminates the possibility of absolutely nothing. The famous philosopher, Descartes, once said, I think, therefore I am. He did not know what he was, but the fact that he had thought meant he must be something; or have existence. The fact that you are reading this paper means that you too are something and therefore eliminates the possibility of a universe composed of absolutely nothing. Therefore, the first step in creation of the QFU considers a universe that addresses the existence of Descartes. We do not know what Descartes is, so we consider the simplest solution; Descartes is at least potentially something. Our QFU starts out its existence at the origin of the Cartesian coordinate system in Euclidean space. So I use the tools of geometry, a border; in this case the Z axis of the Cartesian coordinate system to separate the two things that exist in my early universe; Nothing and Potentially Something. Now we can consider having Nothing as long as we have a separate space for Potentially Something. Nothing is on one side of the border and Potentially Something is on the other side of the border. Our universe will exist on the Potentially Something side of the Z axis. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Any theory of everything would be incomplete if it did not have numbers available so that experimentalists can test the theory. Additionally, the QFU is quantized, which gives us the concept of a unit, or number 1, in number theory. So, I place the X axis of the Cartesian coordinate system 90 degrees from the Z axis. On one side of the X axis I place the number 1. On the other side of the X axis I place the number -1. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

From the reader's perspective, you can see the entire universe as I have developed it so far. If you look at the Potentially Something space, you see a number 1 and a number -1 at the same time. In effect, since you can see both sides of the X axis, you always see 0 from a number perspective. An infinite set of numbers can exist on one side of the X axis as long as an identical set of negative numbers exist on the other side of the X axis. If you think it is possible to describe all objects that exist in our world today using numbers, then we can substitute a Descartes for the number 1 which requires us to substitute a negative Descartes for the number -1 on the other side of the X axis. Again, our objects summate over both sides of the X axis to end up with a total of 0, or nothing in the Potentially Something space. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

The next step in development of the universe is critically important. This step allows us to place mass and energy within the confines of space and time. We can go back to our universe with a 1 and -1 on each side of the X axis. If we connect the 1 and -1 with a line and only concentrate on the space provided by positive numbers, we end up with a line unit that measures 1 Planck meter and has sides that are polarized. One side of the line unit has the value of 1. The other side of the line unit has the value of 0. Notice that if you superimpose the line unit on one side of the X axis with the line unit on the opposite side of the X axis, they cancel each other out; again resulting in 0 or nothing in the Potentially Something space. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

If we concentrate on just this line unit as it may appear in 3-dimensional space, we can view the line unit from six different perspectives depending on how the polarized line is positioned in space. I call these views Up, Down, Left, Right, Closed, and Open. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Our next step is to complete the well-known Cartesian coordinate system by adding the Y axis. The Nothing space remains behind the Z axis and the Potentially Something space is in front of the Z axis. The tools we have available to complete the QFU are barriers, spaces, numbers and the line unit. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Everything we have created so far has occurred before the existence of time. We now introduce time into the model at 1 Planck second where barriers (a 2-dimensional plane in this case) are placed on every coordinate axis at a distance of 1 Planck meter from the origin (0,0,0). You can see that placing these barriers creates 8 units of space; each measuring 1 Planck meter cubed. Space A is where the QFU will exist. I call this space the Real Space because it will contain all objects that we traditionally consider things in our universe. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Space B lies to the right of the X axis where the negative of all numbers in the Real Space must exist as we have already shown. I call this space the Imaginary Space because mathematics has square roots. A negative square root is by definition an imaginary number that appropriately belongs in the Imaginary Space. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Spaces C and D lie behind the Z axis, so they exist in the Nothing Space. You can think of these spaces as the Anti-Space to spaces A and B. If a particle exists in the Real Space, its Anti-Particle exists in the D Space. A similar argument can be made for negative particles in the B space and Anti-Negative particles in the C Space. Fortunately, we do not need to consider spaces C and D any more since they play no part in developing the QFU or our reality. It is helpful, though, to have an anti-particle space because this allows us to consider the annihilation of particles and anti-particles when they come into contact with each other. Now, every positive object or number in the Real Space has a negative object or number in the Imaginary Space that results in 0. Combining these objects or numbers with their Anti-objects or numbers allows us to remove the 0 from our universe, which brings us even closer to a universe with absolutely nothing. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Spaces E, F, G, and H are simply the reciprocals of the respective spaces A, B, C, and D. Considering the Real Space, space A, if a number 5 exists in the Real Space, then a 1/5 exists in Space E. If an observer can see both the 5 and the 1/5 at the same time, then the observer is left with 1. The important point to make about the spaces below the Y axis is that no new information is created. They play no part in developing the QFU or our reality. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

We can now finalize the creation of our QFU. As mentioned above, we can remove the Spaces E, F, G, and H from our Euclidean space and Cartesian coordinate system because these spaces are reciprocals of other spaces adding no new information. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Similarly, we can remove spaces C and D since they are behind the Z axis and exist in the Nothing Space. Finally, we will only use the Imaginary Space when we need to use imaginary numbers. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

This leaves us with only the Real Space located at the origin coming into existence during the first second of universe expansion. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Now that we have space and time, we need to add a line unit to create mass and energy. Remember that our line unit was developed earlier by placing a line between the 1 and -1 located in the Real and Imaginary Spaces respectively. Considering only the Real Space, the line unit is polarized. The side I call Closed is at 1, while the side I call Open is at 0. The line unit can be viewed from 6 different perspectives in 3-dimensional space offering us the option of calling the line unit an Up, Down, Left, Right, Closed, or Open. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Prior to the beginning of the next second of time, a line unit is placed in the space of the QFU giving us 1 of 6 possible outcomes as our first mass or energy unit to start the expansion of the universe. We have now developed the QFU from nothing bringing phase 1 of this paper to a close. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Phase 2: Expansion of the Universe | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

I show the expansion of a universe through five sections; each operating simultaneously and cooperatively to create a single combined process. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

1) In section 1, I define an electron as one of several possible fundamental particles to expose complimentarity, or wave particle duality. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

2) In section 2, I take the opposite extreme, using the QFU as a qubit (quhexit) in the register of a metaphoric Universal Quantum Computer to accommodate all possible universes, or the multiverse. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

3) Section 3 explains the biologic structures that collapse the wavefunction into our 3-dimensional space-time reality. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

4) Section 4 fills in the gap between the smallest possible scope (electron) and the largest possible scope (multiverse). In this step I define mass, energy, gravity and the strong force. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

5) In section 5, I sum up the overall model showing how the collapse of the wavefunction, the Big Bang, Relativity, and Quantum Mechanics fit together nicely in a single model. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Let's start expansion of the universe by looking at the first 5 Planck seconds where successive placement of barriers and line units on the X,Y,and Z axes provide additional QFU's in the Real Space. If one observes expansion of the universe from the X-axis (which I call Face A), the next five figures show what one possible universe might look like. You are looking at collapsed QFU's as the universe expands. Only one of six possibilities, Up, Down, Right, Left, Open, or Closed exists in each section of space-time. In this case, we have an Open collapsed QFU at 1 Planck second. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

A Higgsless model of the universe would show spontaneous breaking of the QFU with each outcome, Up, Down, Left, Right, Open, or Closed equally likely in order to be consistent with the unitary principle. I chose the collapsed QFU's you see in the figures above in order to make several points throughout this paper. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Here is a table summarizing the findings for the first 5 Planck seconds. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

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This table shows several characteristics of the model I am creating: 1) The universe is 2-dimensional. 2) The universe is quantized with respect to distance and time. 3) The universe expands at a rate that is the square of the Planck time in seconds, showing exponential growth. 4) The total number of new QFU's for any specific Plank time, n, is 2n-1. 5) The maximum possible states, or sample space, for any given Planck time, n, is 6 ^{n squared} | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Complimentarity | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

I am going to define an Open collapsed QFU as an electron. Therefore, as my universe expanded over the first 5 Planck seconds, an electron has been oscillating back and forth in the lower right hand corner. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Now, going back to our original QFU, we see that the QFU can be viewed from 3 different perspectives; Face A, Face B, or Face C, depending on an arbitrary choice to view the universe from the X, Y, or Z axis. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

If we were to view the oscillating electron from Face B instead of Face A, this is what we would see. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

The oscillating electron now appears to be a wave. Additionally, the model shows how electrons move through quantum jumps rather than a continuous motion. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

If we were to now change our perspective again 90 degrees so that we are looking from Face C, or the Z axis, our oscillating electron will have magnetic properties; specifically, a polarized line that lies 90 degrees to an electric wave. We know in reality, the electromagnetic wave associated with an oscillating electron is actually an electromagnetic field. My model accommodates the field, but it is best to discuss field properties at a later time. For now, I only want the reader to understand that my model provides a relationship between an oscillating charge and electromagnetism. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Therefore, the universe can be explained from a magnetic, wave, or particle perspective. Niels Bohr used complimentarity to describe the wave-particle perspective; he did not include the possibility of a magnetic perspective. We know from the double slit experiment that nature prefers to describe reality from the wave perspective unless there is an observer, which changes the preferred frame of reference to the particle perspective. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

We view the universe, and objects in it, as a 3-dimensional space-time continuum; 3-dimensional objects make sense to us. How then, can a 2 dimensional universe provide 3-dimensional objects for us to see, hold, and experience? This question can be answered by expanding our understanding of complimentarity. At the extreme quantum level, such as a single QFU, we do not have the choice of viewing the universe as a particle and a wave at the same time. We must choose between a particle or wave by choosing to view the universe from Face A (X axis) or Face B (Y axis). Making this choice commits us to the particle or wave frame of reference yet, importantly, does not keep us from viewing the particle or wave from all 3 Faces, A, B, and C at the same time. This situation is best understood using examples. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

I have reproduced the expanding universe at 5 Planck seconds in the figure below, adding a circle to join a set of Closed QFU's observed from Face A, which is the particle perspective. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Complimentarity, at the quantum level, now forces me to commit to the particle representation. So, when I now move to Face B and Face C, I see only the particle representation, which makes the 2-dimensional circle look like a 3-dimensional sphere. Reality, then, requires an observer, you, to view Face A, B, and C at the same time with the specific requirement that the choice of a wave or particle representation has already been made. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

We can do the same analysis, yet this time using the wave representation. Again, when we simultaneously view Faces A, B, and C together, we see the 3-dimensional wave view which is obviously much more complicated to us compared to the particle view. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Complimentarity, then, provides an experimental test for the validity of this model. We should be able to align 3 lasers such that the peak of each wave meets at the same point. This arrangement should create a magnetic field that can be tested by passing a charged particle near the point where the laser crests meet. Such a test would also confirm the particle nature of waves as seen in the photoelectric effect. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

The Universal Quantum Computer (Multiverse) | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

The wavefunction describes the state of a system in quantum mechanic terms. In this section, I will show how the QFU can be used to describe all possible states of the multiverse. As the title of this section suggests, we can use the QFU as a qubit, or quehexit, in a metaphoric quantum computer to better understand the concept. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Earlier, I expanded a universe 5 Planck seconds. Let's take another look at the table I presented to summarize this expansion. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

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A unique state is defined as a unique combination of collapsed QFU's. At 1 Planck second we have 1 QFU, with 6 possible collapsed states, Up, Down, Right, Left, Open, and Closed. At 5 Planck seconds, we have 25 QFU's with 2.84·10^{19} possible collapsed states. If we believe that our universe is 1.38·10^{10} years old, how many different states can exist at the present time?Calculate the number of seconds/year: 60 seconds x 60 minutes x 24 hours x 365 days = 3.15·10 ^{7} seconds/year.The universe has therefore existed for: 1.38·10 ^{10} years x 3.15·10^{7} seconds/year = 4.35·10^{17}seconds.At a minimum, the universe expands at the speed of light, so the diameter of the universe is: Speed of light 3.00·10 ^{8} meters/second x 4.35·10^{17} seconds = 1.31·10^{26}meters.One side of a QFU has the length of 1 Planck meter that is 1.62·10 ^{-34} meters. So, there are 1.62·10^{34} Planck meters/meter.The diameter of the universe in Planck meters is therefore: 1.31·10 ^{26}meters x 1.62·10^{34} Planck meters/meter = 2.12·10^{60} Planck meters.In my model, there is a 1:1 relationship between Planck meters and Planck seconds. So, the universe has existed for 2.12·10 ^{60} Planck seconds.According to the table, the total QFU's is equal to the Planck seconds squared: Total QFU's = 2.12·10 ^{60} squared = 4.49·10^{120} QFU's.Finally, the total possible states available for this number of QFU's is: 6 raised to the power of total QFU's ≈ 6 ^{1200} possible states. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

It would take 10^{120} collapsed QFU's to precisely describe our universe, at any given time, down to the level of the Planck constant. If you were to change only one collapsed QFU to any other outcome, you would have a different universe. The value 6^{1200} represents all possible combinations of QFU's, or universes, that could be described as long as the size of each universe is the same as our universe. In effect, 10^{120} uncollapsed QFU's represents the multiverse, as it would exist prior to any observation. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

I like to think of the expanding universe as cycles of QFU creation in a Universal Quantum Computer. The central processing unit, CPU, runs at least as fast as the speed of light with 10^{120} qubits (QFU) in an expanding register ready to be processed with each click of the clock. Computers today can simulate reality. The Universal Quantum Computer has the power to completely describe 10^{120} universes at one time. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

I will use the idea of a Universal Quantum Computer throughout the remainder of this paper. From a metaphysical perspective, the Universal Quantum Computer only exists as a necessary supplement to the particle perspective of the universe. If one was to try and describe the universe from a completely wave perspective, the idea of the Universal Quantum Computer would not be necessary. I will return to the metaphysical perspective of the Universal Quantum Computer after the next section describing the biological structures involved with collapse of the wavefunction. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Collapse of the Wavefunction | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

This is not my original work, so I will credit the author along with the title of the paper while offering a brief summary highlighting the important parts. The author's name is Dr. Sam Al-Khazen and his paper is titled, DNA The Gateway to Time, published in NeuroQuantology, March 2009, Vol 7, Issue 1, Page 152-175. Dr. Al-Khazen identifies the interaction of space and time photons in brain neuron DNA as the site for collapse of the wavefunction. In order to understand his perspective, you need to understand what the difference is between a space and a time photon. All photons exist in the same frame of reference because they all travel at the speed of light. From a photon perspective, then, electromagnetic radiation exists as waves extending throughout space with no perception of movement or time. These are space photons. On the other hand, using Maxwell's equations, Dr Al-Khazen has shown that sensory perception of electromagnetic radiation, whether light, sound, smell, or touch, causes a flux of ions into and out of neurons in the brain. These neurons are the only place where DNA is found in the uncoiled state. Therefore, the abundant electrons, located on phosphate groups forming the backbone of the DNA molecule, are exposed to this ion flux. In effect, the electrons on the phosphate groups oscillate in response to the ion flux creating a virtual photon that shows time fluctuation rather than space fluctuation. These are time photons. Observation, then allows space photons and time photons to interact in our brain that collapses the wavefunction into a space-time continuum which we experience as our reality. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

I have created an image summarizing this process, using the Face B perspective for a person looking at an oscillating electron in a real object. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Collapse of the wavefunction occurs in the DNA of neurons due to the interaction of space and time photons. The idea of a space photon forces us to change a critical assumption contained in Special Relativity. Objects in the Real Space travel at 186,000 miles per second while a light ray maintains its position in space. In my view of reality, a Quantum-Real Margin exists separating uncollapsed and collapsed QFU's. The Universal Quantum Computer manages the process of collapse ensuring that observation is consistent with the laws of physics and energy/mass conservation. Expansion of the uncollapsed universe travels at a speed, U, that is faster than the speed of light. All collapsed objects in our reality, though, travel at a phase velocity, C, moving in the direction away from the observer towards the objects being observed. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

The Universal Quantum Computer (Collapse of the Wavefunction) | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Cerebral neuron DNA, then, is where the wavefunction collapses to create our reality. In this section, I will show that brain DNA is also the metaphysical source of the Universal Quantum Computer. Earlier I stated that the Universal Quantum Computer is a necessary structure when viewing the universe from a particle perspective. Now, we can look more closely into why this is the case. We are going to concentrate on visual input for this example. Consider a 2-acre pond on a windy day while it is raining. All of the visual information coming from the pond to your eyes is delivered as electromagnetic radiation distinguished by frequency and constructive or destructive interference. The fundamental interaction underlying conscious perception of your surroundings is therefore a wave-wave interaction. Yet, you do not think along the lines of wave interference. You think of a person viewing the pond; a particle-particle interaction. Your brain was able to transfer the wave-wave interaction into a particle-particle perception. We have seen this transition before when we considered complimentarity, or wave-particle duality. The transition occurred by changing from the Face B (wave) view of the universe to the Face A (particle) view of the universe. Notice, that when viewing Face B (refer to image in previous section) you can see both sides of the Quantum-Real Margin; uncollapsed QFU's, collapsed QFU's, the Group Velocity, and the Phase Velocity of the universal wave. Now, when you change to the Face A view, you only see the particle representation of an expanding universe. But, this expansion has a clock that ticks at the speed of light creating new layers of collapsed QFU's. Uncollapsed QFU's are positioned in a manner consistent with the register of a computer CPU. I believe that the instructions that make the Universal Quantum Computer carry out its logic from Face A are the same entity as the constructive and destructive interference pattern of the phase velocity viewed from Face B. Complimentarity, then should not be thought of as Wave = Particle. Rather, Wave = Universal Quantum Computer + Particle. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Mass, Energy, Gravity, and the Strong Force | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

In this section, I am not trying to describe our universe. I describe the state of some universe, within the multiverse, that has mass and energy. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Mass | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Let's return to the collapsed universe at 5 Planck seconds where I have drawn a circle around Closed QFU's. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

I define an Up QFU as an Up quark and a Down QFU as a Down quark. Mass at the nuclear level is defined as a group of Closed QFU's that form a circle surrounding an appropriate number of quarks. A proton, therefore has 2 Up QFU's, a single Down QFU and a Left or Right QFU to provide nuclear polarity. A neutron has 2 Down QFU's, 1 Up QFU, and a Left or Right QFU to provide nuclear polarity. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Gravity | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Newton thought gravity was a force that acted on objects. Einstein showed us that gravity was not a force, but rather the result of mass warping space-time; creating geodesics which are the shortest distance between two points in warped space-time. Objects with mass move towards each other because they are following geodesic. I will show you that gravity is the result of an expanding universe viewed from a unique frame of reference. We will start by moving back to the expansion of the universe at 5 Planck seconds where we have 25 QFU's and one unit of mass. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Let's remove all of the line units and simplify the universe to a single circle created from 16 QFU's to represent the outline of mass at the proton or neutron level. If we were to let the universe expand at its natural rate, the total number of QFU's would grow so quickly that our view of the universe from Face A, or the X axis, would become impossible to see. On the other hand, we can consider a preferred frame of reference where we limit the view of the universe to the dark edged box shown in the image below. Now, as the universe expands, we have the illusion that QFU's are moving away from us and shrinking in size. From our perspective, all mass moves towards a singularity residing at the origin of Euclidean space 0,0,0. The following figures animate this process over 40 Planck seconds of time. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

So far, the QFU and an expanding universe has given us potential space and time. Mass, gravity, and a preferred frame of reference has led us to the singularity prior to the Big Bang. After the Big Bang, the origin, 0,0,0 no longer serves as the universal reference point. Now, any space between mass serves as a common reference point giving us our current sense of gravity; all from an expanding universe and a special frame of reference. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Strong Force and Energy | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Using this definition of gravity, I can now show how gravity is responsible for the Strong Force. Here again, is the universe at 5 Planck seconds with what I call a proton in this universe. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

We can expand the universe to a point where we have 2 protons and 2 neutrons that are moving towards a focus point due to gravity. At some point in time, these protons and neutrons will appear to be a single entity, in this case a helium nucleus. We can see that a lot of QFU's are contained within this new helium nucleus. These QFU's represent the strong force, by definition, in the universe that I am creating. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

The nuclear strong force and nuclear energy are, therefore, the same thing; QFU's defined by the boundary of an atomic nucleus. When trapped within the boundary of an atom, the QFU's are considered the Strong Force. Nuclear fusion or fission can change the total number of trapped QFU's, resulting in a release of nuclear energy. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Entropy and the Weak Force | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Entropy and the weak nuclear force result from the same natural mechanism. Nature does not keep absolute track of the position or composition of particles with every tick of the Universal Quantum Computer clock. Rather, a natural rate of decay is built into our micro world as the weak force and the macro world as entropy. Failure to assign a decay constant to the Universal Quantum Computer would limit the multiverse to static systems and no life. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Bell's Theorem and the Hidden Variable | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Experiments related to Bell's Theorem suggest strongly that quantum mechanics describes reality better than classical physics. Therefore, two entangled particles communicate with each other through some spooky action at a distance. We now know that this action is not really that spooky, it is just our control of the Universal Quantum Computer. In effect, we design our experimental apparatus so that it influences the scope available to the Universal Quantum Computer prior to collapse of the wavefunction (no observation while we send two entangled electrons far away from each other). When we measure the spin of one electron, the Universal Quantum Computer must maintain conservation of spin throughout the universe as it collapses the wavefunction. So, the other electron must collapse appropriately with the opposite spin. Einstein was right in believing that the signal between electrons cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Unfortunately, he was limited to thinking about reality only within our collapsed wavefunction. The Quantum-Real Margin, though, is controlled by the Universal Quantum Computer. This computer functions outside of our reality and can therefore make particles and information seem to move faster than the speed of light. The Universal Quantum Computer is the hidden variable Einstein predicted must exist if quantum mechanics is to be complete. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

The Measurement Problem | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Physicists today cannot explain something they call the measurement problem. Basically, this issue refers to the fact that in the quantum mechanics world, an observation can change the experimental outcome of a study, i.e. the double slit experiment. More importantly, though, is that quantum mechanics suggests that reality does not exist until an observer is present to create the reality (collapse the wavefunction). Einstein complained to Bohr that nature cannot be such where the moon is only present when an observer is looking at it. This is exactly what quantum mechanics is telling us though. We can understand the measurement problem by using the Universal Quantum Computer, yet, it requires us to further describe exactly how the Universal Quantum Computer behaves. In a regular computer, like the one you use on a daily basis, processing and logic are provided by the computer. The medium used for interaction is usually through a keyboard or mouse. In a game, the user maneuvers through the virtual universe by manipulating the input device. In reality, the input device is observation by a living organism that has DNA. This input is fed to the Universal Quantum Computer which is functioning at the Quantum-Real Margin. The response from the Universal Quantum Computer is to provide the particle representation of the true reality that makes up our world. Many people have felt like all humans are connected to each other through some unrecognized force. From a particle perspective, this force is the Universal Quantum Computer, which acts to integrate all of our observations into a single structure. From a wave perspective, all waves exist throughout space where they are connected through constructive and destructive interference patterns. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

The change in momentum multiplied by the change in position of a particle must be greater than or equal to the reduced Planck constant divided by 2. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle naturally flows from my model in an easy to understand way. In my model, time is quantized. If you step through the expansion of the universe 1 Planck second at a time, then you can measure the exact position of a particle at any given time. Yet, to measure momentum, you need a change in position, which requires at least 2 Planck seconds. When faced with 2 Planck seconds, though, you are given two possible positions of the particle, the starting point and the ending point, making it impossible to measure the exact position of the particle. You cannot measure both at the same time. This uncertainty is a consequence of nature, not the device used to measure nature. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Reality: A Summary | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

This is how I bring the entire picture together to create our reality. The process is described best by using Schrodinger's Cat as a guide. If an observer was to open the box and find a dead cat, it is possible that some evidence exists showing that the cat had been dead in the box for some time, say 10 minutes. In this case, it is difficult to believe that the cat was both dead and alive at the same time just before opening the box. Yet, this is exactly what quantum mechanics is telling us. What is actually happening is that when the observer places the cat in the box and closes the lid, the Universal Quantum Computer keeps track of the dead and alive cat every click of the clock. The wavefunction describes all of the possibilities with the cat dead from the first Planck second up until the very last Planck second before the box is opened. In our example, the wavefunction that collapses into reality is the one that finds the cat dead for the last 10 minutes. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

With this process in mind, the beginning of the multiverse began with the first QFU. The multiverse expanded until the wavefunction allowed for the possibility of DNA. Immediately, the wavefunction collapsed our universe into reality with the first observation (DNA recognizing its environment) resulting in our 3-dimensional space-time. The Big Bang, then did not really occur as we view occurrences in reality today. Formation of the Singularity, the Big Bang, and everything that happened prior to DNA existed only as one possibility in a universal wavefunction; the same way Schrodinger's cat was both dead and alive at the same time prior to opening the box. Your observation of a dead cat and evidence to support the Big Bang may lead you to be absolutely confident in your assessment. Yet, you cannot ignore quantum mechanics, these "sure to exist" events did not really happen. You just think they happened. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Margnial Analysis | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

I use the concept of marginal analysis in physics to suggest that the study of physics should be directed to understanding all margins that exist in nature. I have just presented the words that describe the multiverse. If an equation can be derived that matches these words, then we would have access to mathematics that completely describe our universe. The wavefunction describes a single margin; the Quantum-Real Margin. Additional margins exist between the Real Space and the Imaginary Space. This margin is frequently investigated as we develop innovative computer technology. Similarly, the Real-Anti Real margin is investigated when we evaluate particle-antiparticle annihilation. Looking back on my development of the QFU, we see that the QFU only exists in the Real Space. Yet to really understand the possibility of having absolutely nothing, we must address the potential existence of 8 spaces that surround the 0,0,0 origin of the Cartesian coordinate system. All of these spaces have their own margin available for analysis. Finally, experimental physicists should attempt to clearly classify how their experimental apparatus influences the Universal Quantum Computer and the various Margins. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Concluding remarks | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

I want to state clearly that this paper places two innovative ideas into the public domain and therefore cannot be patented. First, time may be manipulated (or slowed down) by creating molecules that change the diameter of uncoiled DNA in cerebral neurons that would change the frequency of virtual time photons, thus creating a fountain of youth or slow down aging. It is likely that this theory of time manipulation will explain why some animals age faster than others and will likely play a part in understanding why some professional athletes exibit quicker reflexes than non-athletes; they are experiencing time more quickly. Second, as mentioned previously, it may be possible to align three lasers in a manner where their crests form a single point, mimicking the QFU and therefore an electromagnetic particle. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Contact the author: Scott.Gonzales@gmail.com | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Supplemental information available in the Gonzales Theory Forum. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Cite this article: Gonzales, Scott, MD. "Theory of Everything, The Quantum Fundamental Unit and Marginal Analysis." www.gonzalestheory.com Dec 18, 2011. (Date of access), www.gonzalestheory.com | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

Permission: Any part of this article, including images, may be reproduced without author's permission if proper citation is used. |